Archeological excavations of Umbro
At about 4 kilometres from the coast, close to the boundary between the towns of Bova and Bova Marina, lies the archaeological site of Umbro. At the foot of a rocky cliff, a considerable number of finds have come to light. From these it is possible to conclude that the area was inhabited a great deal during the Neolithic period, that is, from the middle of the sixth millennium B.C. to the middle of the fifth millennium B.C. (Stentinello). It has also been demonstrated that the area was in use during the facies of Diana phase and probably, though sporadically, during the Copper Age. On the contrary, the top of the hill was inhabited during the Bronze Age.
Summing up, the Umbro settlement appears to have been inhabited during three periods at least. During the Early and Middle Neolithic (sixth-fifth millennium BC, fourth and fifth layers of Trench 1), the land at the foot of the cliff appears to have been occupied during the facies of Stentinello phase. Some of the surrounding areas may have been inhabited during this period, however, traces of any such occupation would appear to have been destroyed by erosion affecting the district. The area occupied during the facies of Stentinello may have been reused during the Late/Final Neolithic age, corresponding to the facies of Diana. The Neolithic artefacts found include pottery typical of those of the Stentinello and Diana phases. There are also some Neolithic pottery examples of other kinds, like red-painted ceramics, and fragments of other items dating, probably, from the Aeneolithic (transition from Neolithic to Bronze) era. Many obsidian finds have been dug up, a valuable axe in amphibolite, a small reproduction of axe in phyllite, some mill-stones and fragments of concotto and red ochre. The animal remains found here attest to a preponderance of sheep and goats as well as to the presence of pigs; remains of cattle are rare, while there is no trace of fish. There are quite a few dog-bone remains. Samples obtained from each layer, by means of flotation, confirm the cultivation of vetch (a legume), Triticum Aestivum sl. (wheat), emmer and barley.
Text by Pasquale Faenza